This work is based on my 1983 doctoral dissertation submitted to the Department of Linguistics at Harvard University, although it represents an extensive revision and reorganization of that work. Large amounts of material that were not contained in the original have been added, and parts that address theoretical issues that, at least for the time being, have receded into the background, have been omitted. Many colleagues and friends have contributed to my sustained fascina tion with as well as my understanding of lroquoian linguistics. First of all, I am grateful to the Iroquois who have contributed their profound knowl edge and their friendship during my research: Elda Antone, Mercy Doxtator, Dayton Doxtator, Reg Henry, Frank Natawe, the late Georgina Nicholas, Catherine Norton, Mike Norton. the late Sanford Schenandoah, and Norma Sickles. I also deeply appreciate being part of a close-knit and supportive community of lroquoian linguists, and in particular I thank Cliff Abbott, Wallace Chafe, Mike Foster, Marianne Mithun, and Hanni Woodbury for providing comments on the dissertation. I have also benefited from, and value highly, extremely stimulating conversations with Floyd Lounsbury in the last few years. The influence of my advisers and friends will be evident throughout the work. I thank especially Nick Clements, Ives Goddard, Jochem Schindler, Robin Barr, Harry Bochner, Brian Doherty, Mark Hale, and Phil LeSourd.