This fourth volume of our Annual bibliography of the history of the printed books and libraries contains more than 3400 entries and added entries, i.e. some six hundred more than the preceding volume. This increase is due mainly to the collaboration of the new members, Portugal, USA and Yugo slavia. The items recorded in this volume have been selected by the National Committees of the following countries: Austria J.Juxembourg Belgium The Netherlands Bulgaria Norway Denmark Poland Finland Portugal France Rumania German Democratic Republic South Africa German Federal Republic Switzerland Great Britain USA Hungary USSR Ireland (Republic of) Yugoslavia Italy From next volume on, there is some reasonable expectation that Canada and Australia will collaborate to this bibliography. Benevolent readers are requested to signal the names of bibliographers and historians from countries not mentioned above, who would be willing to co-operate to this scheme of international bibliographic collaboration. The editor will greatly appreciate any communication on this matter. VIII INTRODUCTION Subject As has been said in the introduction to the previous volumes, this bibli ography aims at recording all books and articles of scholarly value which relate to the history of the printed book, to the history of the arts, crafts, techniques and equipment, and of the economic, social and cultural environment, involved in its production, distribution, conservation, and description. Of course, this ideal of a complete coverage is impossible to attain.