This book describes applications of the AdS/CFT duality to the "real world." The AdS/CFT duality is an idea that originated from string theory and is a powerful tool for analyzing strongly-coupled gauge theories using classical gravitational theories. In recent years, it has been shown that one prediction of AdS/CFT is indeed close to the experimental result of the real quark–gluon plasma. Since then, the AdS/CFT duality has been applied to various fields of physics; examples are QCD, nuclear physics, condensed-matter physics, and nonequilibrium physics. The aim of this book is to provide background materials such as string theory, black holes, nuclear physics, condensed-matter physics, and nonequilibrium physics as well as key applications of the AdS/CFT duality in a single volume. The emphasis throughout the book is on a pedagogical and intuitive approach focusing on the underlying physical concepts. It also includes step-by-step computations for important results, which are useful for beginners. This book will be a valuable reference work for graduate students and researchers in particle physics, general relativity, nuclear physics, nonequilibrium physics, and condensed-matter physics.