One cannot overemphasize the importance of studying fluids in motion or at rest for a variety of scientific and engineering endeavors. Fluid mechanics as an art reaches back into antiquity, but its rational formulation is a relatively recent undertaking. Much of the physics of a particular flow situation can be understood by conducting appropriate experiments. Flow visualization techniques offer a useful tool to establish an overall picture of a flow field and to delineate broadly its salient features before embarking on more detailed quantitative measurements. Among the single-point measurements that are particularly difficult are those in separated flows, non-Newtonian fluids, rotating flows, and nuclear aerosols. Pressure, shear stress, vorticity, and heat transfer coefficient are also difficult quantities to measure, particularly for time-dependent flows. These and other special situations are among the topics covered in this volume. Each article emphasizes the development of a particular measuring technique. The topics covered were chosen because of their importance to the field, recent appeal, and potential for future development. The articles are comprehensive and coverage is pedagogical with a bias towards recent developments.