A qualitative leap in the understanding of cardiovascular and n- ral regulation by the renin–angiotensin system, and of the role of this s- tem in tissue damage, has occurred as a result of the many recent advances in molecular genetic techniques. The cloning of the genes for the components of the renin–angiotensin system, the design of specific angiotensin receptor ligands, and the use of embryonic gene targeting te- niques for the creation of mutant strains have established that the renin– angiotensin system is important in blood pressure regulation, ion and fluid homeostasis, and tissue growth and remodeling Further investigation of the mechanisms by which this system p- ticipates in cardiovascular regulation may shed some light on the pat- genesis of several cardiovascular diseases, e. g. , hypertension, congestive heart failure, and chronic renal failure. Despite the promise of this system as a target for therapeutic interventions for these diseases, there are great challenges in the integration of the attempts to close the gap between the traditional literature of medicine and the explosion of information from the new technologies. This book’s title, Angiotensin Protocols, reflects the authors’ strong efforts to translate expert knowledge into easy-to-follow practice. The book opens with introductory chapters, and each specialty section provides detailed methods covering a wide variety of techniques, ranging from genetic manipulation of targeted genes to functional studies of the renin– angiotensin system.