Since its discovery Antarctica has held a deep fascination forbiologists. Extreme environmental conditions, seasonality andisolation have lead to some of the most striking examples ofnatural selection and adaptation on Earth. Paradoxically, some ofthese adaptations may pose constraints on the ability of theAntarctic biota to respond to climate change. Parts of Antarcticaare showing some of the largest changes in temperature and otherenvironmental conditions in the world. In this volume, published inassociation with the Royal Society, leading polar scientistspresent a synthesis of the latest research on the biologicalsystems in Antarctica, covering organisms from microbes tovertebrate higher predators. This book comes at a time when newtechnologies and approaches allow the implications of climatechange and other direct human impacts on Antarctica to be viewed ata range of scales; across entire regions, whole ecosystems and downto the level of species and variation within their genomes.Chapters address both Antarctic terrestrial and marine ecosystems,and the scientific and management challenges of the future areexplored.