Biological weapons have long been outlawed by the international community but existing measures to ensure their prohibition – most prominently through the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) – suffer from shortcomings. Biotechnological and political developments pose additional challenges. The 7th BWC Review Conference, held in December 2011, provided the most recent opportunity to address these challenges. Una Becker-Jakob analyses the results and subsequent developments in the BWC regime, concluding that the current framework addresses relevant issues but leaves little room for immediate improvement. She argues that the BWC needs a number of short-term actions and a strategic dialogue to render it more effective and guarantee its distinct character as the only existing multilateral biological weapons disarmament forum.