In this thesis, the technological basis for application and production of measurement standards
especially suited for confocal microscopes used in surface metrology is presented.
Additionally, the influence of various noise sources on the topography height determination
from the confocal curve is considered. The sensitivity of a centre-of-mass, a crosscorrelation
and a polynomial fit algorithm on these noise sources is analysed by deriving
expressions for the height uncertainty in closed form. It is found that the latter algorithm
is least effected by random noise.
Furthermore, imaging properties of confocal microscopes are investigated by means of
numerical simulations and comparative experimental data. Sources of systematic errors
are determined by considering light interactions between microscope and specimens with
geometrical basic cross-sections, such as inclined mirror and gratings with rectangular cross
section. The results reveal that aberrations and also the geometry of the specimen have a
great impact on the accuracy of the measurement result.
The knowledge gained in the preceding work is used to design measurement standards,
which can be used for a faithful calibration of confocal microscopes. Furthermore, a hot
embossing process is employed to replicate the standards made from different materials
into polymers. Measurement data is provided to prove the applicability of the replication
process and the polymer standards.