The present book, Cases of Assessment in Mathematics Education, is one of two studies resulting from an ICMI Study Conference on Assessment in Mathematics Education and Its Effects. The book which is published in the series of ICMI Studies under the general editorship of the President and Secretary of ICMI is closely related to another study resulting from the same conference: Investigations into Assessment in Mathematics Education (Niss, 1992). The two books, although originating from the same sources and having the same editor, emphasize different aspects of assessment in mathematics education and can be read independently of one another. While the present book is devoted to presenting and discussing cases of assessment that are actually implemented, the other study attempts to critically analyze general and principal aspects of assessment. Naturally, the content of either book is enriched by the materials and perspectives provided by the other one. In order to put this book and its background into context, the nature and scope of the ICMI studies are outlined briefly below.