The economies of the People's Republic of China and India are emerging-market economies, which account for more than a third of the global population. These two economies share many similarities in that they are large populous neighbours, who were regarded as abjectly poor countries until the 1980s and both are ancient cultures which has both advantages and disadvantages for economic development. However, their political systems are very different. While India is an open democratic society, China is a closed society run in an authoritarian manner by the Chinese Communist Party. This dissimilarity impacts on the economic decision making process in the two economies. This book is the first to systematically compare and contrast the two economies. It takes an objective and dispassionate view and delves into the constructive and favourable side as well as adverse and unfavourable side of the two economies. Written in a comprehensive and authoritative manner, it covers large areas of the two economies, including trade and financial sectors. It also includes other important relevant facets of the two economies.