For the last two decades, the topic of chronic renal failure has been dominated by discussions on dialysis and transplantation. As facilities for treating patients with end-stage renal failure have become more readily available, at least in Europe and North America, attention has once again been drawn to conservative measures which may improve both the overall prognosis and the quality of life of patients with renal impairment. Although severe renal failure may be progressive and many patients will ultimately require some form of renal replacement therapy, it is now widely appreciated that distressing symptoms can often be ameliorated by judicious medical treatment. Children as well as, and perhaps to a greater extent than, adults may benefit from such therapy. This volume examines relevant trends in the conservative man agement of both adults and children with chronic renal failure. Each chapter has been written by recognized experts and provides infor mation of clinical relevance for the average clinician. As the overall prognosis for patients with end-stage renal failure improves it is clear the management of patients with relatively stable chronic renal failure is an important topic not only for nephrologists but for all practising clinicians.