Many environmental problems resulting from atmospheric, land and water pollution are now widely understood. The combination of both improved technology and legislative pressure has led to a reduction in pollution from industrial practices in the West in recent years. However, sustainable development is dependent upon a new approach to environmental protection - clean technology. This book is in two parts. The first explores the ecological principles governing the function of ecosystems, sustain ability and biodiversity (Chapter 1) and the problems resulting from atmospheric pollution (Chapter 2), water pollution (Chapter 3) and land pollution (Chapter 4). For example, there is increasing international concern that the combustion of fossil fuels is leading to an increase in the levels of carbon, sulphur and nitrogen gases which pollute the atmosphere of our planet. The enhanced levels of carbon gases such as carbon dioxide may cause change in our global climate and, in tum, lead to flooding and loss of low-lying coastal regions. In addition, the deposition of sulphur and nitrogen oxides is believed to be the cause of 'acid rain' which has led to loss of fish stocks from upland lochs and damage to forestry plantations.