This book is intended to serve all those who are interested in structural opti mization, whether they work in this field or study it for other purposes. Rapid growth of interest in the cognitive aspects of optimization and the increas ing demands that the present day engineer has to meet in modern design have created the need of a monographic treatment of the subject. The vast number and wide range of structural optimization problems formulated and investigated in the last twenty years call for an attempt to sum up the pres ent state of knowledge in this domain and to outline the directions of its further development. The present authors undertook this task, hoping that the result would stimulate further work towards finding new methods and solutions and increasing the range of applications of the optimization methods to structural design. The immediate aim of the book is to present the basic criteria and methods of optimization and to provide a reference guide to the most important publications in the field. The book consists of fourteen chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the basic concepts, definitions and assumptions relating to structural optimization. Chapter 2 gives the foundations of optimization for minimum elastic strain potential or maximum rigidity, and sets a basis for optimization of bar, plate and lattice structures. Chapter 3 presents criteria of strength design and their applications to plane structures.