This volume represents a review of recent work presented by eminent scientists at the Second International Symposium on 'Applied Physiology in Critical Care with Emphasis on Children' at Aruba, Netherlands Antilles, November 28 - 2 December, 1983. We are grateful to the keynote speakers who accepted our invitation and completed their chapters in time for the press. I must thank the Government of Aruba, the Tourist Office of Aruba, Mr Frank Croes and Mr Betico Croes for their support and generosity for organizing this symposium. My sincere thanks go to Mr Rory Arends, Lucy Arends, Simon Meij and Norma van Toornburg for their untiring efforts and cooperation. Omar Prakash, MD IX List of contributors Bryan, A.Ch., MB, BS, PhD, FRCP (C), The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8 Bryan, H., MD, Department of Pediatrics, Room 1241, Mount Sinai Hospital and The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X5 co-authors: A.L. Campbell, Y. Zarfin, M. Groenveld, P. Duffty Enhorning, G., MD, University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, 399 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 2S8 Gross, I., MD, Perinatal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, P.O.