In this 2003 study, Edson Armi offers a fresh interpretation of Romanesque architecture. Armi focuses on buildings in northern Italy, Switzerland, southern France and Catalonia, the regions where Romanesque architecture first appeared around 1000 AD. He integrates the study of medieval structure with an understanding of construction, decoration and articulation in an effort to determine the origins and originality of medieval architecture and the formation of the High Romanesque style, especially in Burgundy, at sites such as Cluny III. Relying on a close analysis of the fabric of key buildings, Armi's in-depth study reveals a lot about design decisions in the early Middle Ages. It also demonstrates that the mature Romanesque of the twelfth century continues many of the applications created and perfected over the previous one hundred years.