Mathematics is playing an ever more important role in the physical and biological sciences, provoking a blurring of boundaries between scientific disciplines and a resurgence of interest in the modern as weil as the classical techniques of applied mathematics. This renewal of interest, both in research and teaching, has led to the establishment of the series: Texts in Applied Mathematics (TAM). The development of new courses is a natural consequence of a high Ievel of excitement on the research frontier as newer techniques, such as numerical and symbolic computer systems, dynamical systems, and chaos, mix with and reinforce the traditional methods of applied mathematics. Thus, the purpose of this textbook series is to meet the current and future needs of these advances and encourage the teaching of new courses. T AM will publish textbooks suitable for use in advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate courses, and will complement the Applied Mathe matical Seiences ( AMS) series, which will focus on advanced textbooks and research Ievel monographs. Preface to the Fourth Edition There are two major changes in the Fourth Edition of Differential Equations and Their Applications. The first concerns the computer programs in this text. In keeping with recent trends in computer science, we have replaced all the APL programs with Pascal and C programs. The Pascal programs appear in the text in place ofthe APL programs, where they are followed by the Fortran programs, while the C programs appear in Appendix C.