This is the first volume in a trilogy on modern Signal Processing. The three books provide a concise exposition of signal processing topics, and a guide to support individual practical exploration based on MATLAB programs.This book includes MATLAB codes to illustrate each of the main steps of the theory, offering a self-contained guide suitable for independent study. The code is embedded in the text, helping readers to put into practice the ideas and methods discussed.The book is divided into three parts, the first of which introduces readers to periodic and non-periodic signals. The second part is devoted to filtering, which is an important and commonly used application. The third part addresses more advanced topics, including the analysis of real-world non-stationary signals and data, e.g. structural fatigue, earthquakes, electro-encephalograms, birdsong, etc. The book’s last chapter focuses on modulation, an example of the intentional use of non-stationary signals.