This edited volume reviews our past and present understanding of the ecology of Australian freshwater fishes. It compares patterns and processes in Australia with those on other continents, discusses the local relevance of ecological models from the northern hemisphere and considers how best to manage our species and their habitats in the face of current and future threats. In view of these challenges, the need for redress is urgent. The chapters are written by some of our foremost researchers and managers, developing themes that underpin our knowledge of the ecology, conservation and management of fish and fish habitats. For each theme, the authors formulate a synthesis of what is known, consider the need for new perspectives and identify gaps and opportunities for research, monitoring and management. The themes have an Australian context but draw upon ideas and principles developed by fish biologists in other parts of the world. The science of freshwater fish ecology in Australia has grown rapidly from its roots in natural history and taxonomy. This book offers an introduction for students, researchers and managers, one that the authors hope will carry Australian fish biology and resource management to new levels of understanding.