The regional population growth in West Africa will bring new challenges. (Peri-) urban livestock and vegetable production systems, which can contribute significantly to these endeavours, are limited by various constraints. This doctoral thesis determined nutrient use efficiencies in representative (peri-) urban livestock production systems in three West African cities, and investigated potential health risks for consumers ensuing from there. In (peri-) urban livestock production systems, cattle, sheep, goats and poultry were the main species kept. No relation existed between the education of the HH head and the adoption of improved management practices. The low productivity and reproductive performance of (peri-) urban ruminants might be due to the inadequate feeding system and high pressure of diseases. All the lettuce samples were highly contaminated by faecal coliforms and contamination levels of irrigation water significantly exceeded WHO recommendations for the unrestricted irrigation of vegetables consumed raw. Pesticide residues detected were below the maximum residue limit for consumption. Raw and curdled milk were highly contaminated by thermo-tolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli. For ensuring economically successful and ecologically viable livestock husbandry and food safety of (peri-) urban products, the dissemination and adoption of improved technologies are keys. The future research should focus on cost-effective feeding systems and the improvement of the milk production potential.