During the last decades the appearance of a family has changed substantially. Not long ago a typical family consisted of an employed man and a home-managing woman living together for their whole life times, and having one or more children, which primarily were raised by the wife. Today differing living models are much more common than before. House husbands, late motherhood, and a delayed work entry of the children are some of the related phenomena, which at the same time are reasons for and consequences of the changed view on the favorite family. Not surprisingly, this change has provoked much scientific interest. In this book we present a collection of recent economic research work on the resources management and development of families and households respectively. Assorting three general topics, we focus on the time allocation within the household, the family structure and development, and the transition to work of young adults.