Financial systems around the world are undergoing a process of modernization due to many different forces. Advances in information technology, product and market innovations, and recent regional financial crises have contributed to this movement. As a result, evolution in the financial sector is leading to larger, more complex financial organizations that render inadequate the supervisory and regulatory structures currently in place. While some changes in regulatory policies have already occurred, the adaptation of supervisory oversight and regulation in the face of these new developments is expected to continue for many years to come. This book collects papers originally presented in September 1998 at the Financial Modernization and Regulation Conference co-sponsored by the Federal Reserve Banks of Atlanta and San Francisco. Revised before publication, the papers seek to identify the reasons for changes in the financial services sector, and the implications these changes pose for financial supervision and regulation. Taken together, the papers offer valuable insights on 1) the forces behind financial modernization; 2) the implications financial modernization poses for corporate structure, market discipline, and financial regulation; 3) how to price deposit insurance accurately to reflect banks' risk-taking; and 4) balancing private versus public interests and managing potentially conflicting public policy goals.