This text features a careful treatment of flow lines and algebraic invariants in contact form geometry, a vast area of research connected to symplectic field theory, pseudo-holomorphic curves, and Gromov-Witten invariants (contact homology). In particular, it develops a novel algebraic tool in this field: rooted in the concept of critical points at infinity, the new algebraic invariants defined here are useful in the investigation of contact structures and Reeb vector fields. The book opens with a review of prior results and then proceeds through an examination of variational problems, non-Fredholm behavior, true and false critical points at infinity, and topological implications. An increasing convergence with regular and singular Yamabe-type problems is discussed, and the intersection between contact form and Riemannian geometry is emphasized. Rich in open problems and full, detailed proofs, this work lays the foundation for new avenues of study in contact form geometry and will benefit graduate students and researchers.