This book provides an up-to-date analysis of the Portuguese forests and forestry sector, including its history, its total economic value, current threats and opportunities and future challenges, namely the need to incorporate more planning and technology in forest management practices. The methodological approach of analysing the forestry sector in terms of its total economic value, and the use of this new perspective to correctly perceive the forest sector and to base development strategies is unique. Also, the use of new methods and technologies in the Portuguese forestry sector will be an opportunity to share these experiences with a wider international audience. For example, fire incidence during the summer has almost no parallel in the Western World, implying that Portuguese forest landscapes function as a “natural lab of wildfires” from which much can be learned globally. Thus, the outcomes of the fire management policies adopted might represent important lessons for Mediterranean basin countries.