In this volume on the mechanics of fracture of Portland cement concrete, the general theme is the connection between microstructural phenomena and macroscopic models. The issues addressed include techniques for observation over a wide range of scales, the influence of .microcracking on common measures of strength and de formability , and ultimately, the relationship between microstructural changes in concrete under load and its resistance to cracking. It is now commonly accepted that, in past attempts to force-fit the behavior of concrete into the rules of linear elastic fracture mechanics, proper attention has not been paid to scale effects. Clearly, the relationships among specimen size, crack length and opening, and characteristic material fabric dimensions have been, in comparison to their counterparts in metals, ceramics, and rocks, abused in concrete. Without a fundamental understanding of these relationships, additional testing in search of the elusive, single measure of fracture toughness has spawned additional confusion and frustration. No one is in a better position to document this observation than Professor Mindess.