Modern evolutionary economics and classical political economy are combined in this book on the basis of the reproduction of agents and their relations in the social economy. However, modern evolutionary economics with its pluralistic and contingent view of reproduction does not presuppose equilibrium or harmonious reproduction. A society that consists of multiple agents needs to develop its order out of the interactions of those agents. The author introduces the struggle for recognition that proceeds with the act of exchange to conceive the emergence of social and economic order. The dual structure of the real and financial economy is discussed as its consequence. There follows an interpretation of collective action using the twin concept of voice and exit. Finally, the concept of evolutionary governance is proposed to grasp the politico-economic aspect of the social economy. Thus, this book shows the promising direction in which the modern political economy proceeds in accordance with the contingent process of evolutionary reproduction.