More often than not, progress in medicine occurs incrementally. The report of an 'important' new observation is typically greeted by a mixture of excitement and skepticism. Yet the true value of the discovery may not be known for several years until it is confirmed (or refuted) by independently conducted studies. In some cases, controversy may continue to shroud a topic due to the discordant results generated by different research groups. Since the last Gynecologic Oncology volume in the Cancer Treatment and Research series, a number of new areas have emerged that shed new light on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of gynecologic malignancies. In this volume of the Cancer Treatment and Research series, I have attempted to integrate articles that highlight some of these newest developments with chapters that provide an overview of selected areas of controversy. This volume is not meant to be an abbreviated text of gynecologic oncology but rather a collection of selected works that can provide the reader with a better perspective on the areas of change within the field. The application of molecular biology to cervical cancer has allowed us to understand more completely the roles of human papilloma viruses and cellular oncogenes in the development of cancer of the uterine cervix.