Neurotoxicology is a broad and burgeoning field of research. Its growth in recent years can be related, in part, to increased interest in and concern with the fact that a growing number of anthropogenic agents with neurotoxic potential, including pesticides, lead, mercury, and the polytypic bypro ducts of combustion and industrial production, continue to be spewed into and accumulate in the environment. In addition, there is great interest in natural products, including toxins, as sources of therapeutic agents. Indeed, it is well known that many natural toxins of broadly differing structure, produced or accumulated for predatory or defensive purposes, and toxic agents, accumulated incidentally by numerous species, function to perturb nervous tissue. Components of some of these toxins have been shown to be useful therapeutic agents and/or research reagents. Unfor tunately, the environmental accumulation of some neurotoxic ants of anthropogenic ori gin, especially pesticides and metals, has resulted in incidents of human poisoning, some of epidemic proportion, and high levels of morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, an increasing incidence of neurobehavioral disorders, some with baffling symptoms, is confronting clinicians. It is not clear whether this is merely the result of increased vigi lance and/or improved diagnostics or a consequence of improved health care. In any case, the role of exposure to environmental and occupational neurotoxic ants in the etiology of these phenomena, as well as neurodegenerative diseases, is coming under increasing scrutiny and investigation.