The need for this book arose from my teaching, engineering, and - search experience in the non-power aspects of nuclear technology. The lack of a comprehensive textbook in industrial applications of radiation frustrated my students, who had to resort to a multitude of textbooks and research publications to familiarize themselves with the fundam- tal and practical aspects of radiation technology. As an engineer, I had to acquire the design aspects of radiation devices by trial-and-error, and often by accidental reading of a precious publication. As a researcher and a supervisor of graduate students, I found that the needed literature was either hard to find, or too scattered and diverse. More than once, I discovered that what appeared to be an exciting new idea was an old concept that was tried a few decades earlier during the golden era of “Atom for Peace”. I am hoping, therefore, that this book will serve as a single comprehensive reference source in a growing field that I expect will continue to expand. This book is directed to both neophytes and experts, and is written to combine the old and the new, the basic and the advanced, the simple and the complex. It is anticipated that this book will be of help in - viving older concepts, improving and expanding existing techniques and promoting the development of new ones.