Increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition and changes in the management of heathlands have caused a significant change in the species composition of the NW-European heathlands. This change from ericaceous towards gramineous dominance is analysed in detail in Heathlands: Patterns and Processes in a Changing Environment. Special emphasis is put on the effects of increased atmospheric nutrient input on nutrient cycling, competition between plant species and plant--herbivore interactions. The possibilities for the long-term conservation of heathlands are discussed by considering regeneration from seed and the usefulness of mathematical management models. The book provides a synthesis of pure and applied plant ecology. It is vital reading for plant ecologists, biological conservationists, heathland managers and government decision makers.