Disclaimer The work reported in this book was carried out prior to the publication of the final guidance document on Heavily Modified and Artificial Water Bodies of the Water Framework Directive Common Implementation Strategy. The European Commission, the project donors, the project managers, the Working Group on Heavily Modified Water Bodies of the Common Implementation Strategy and the authors do not necessarily endorse all approaches that were taken in the case studies that are reported. About Ecologic Ecologic, Institute for International and European Environmental Policy, is a private not-for-profit think tank for applied environmental research, policy analysis and c- sultancy with offices in Berlin and Brussels. An independent, non-partisan body, Ecologic is dedicated to bringing fresh ideas to environmental policies and sustainable development. Ecologic’s work programme focuses on obtaining practical results. It c- ers the entire spectrum of environmental issues and includes the integration of en- ronmental concerns into other policy fields. Ecologic is the German partner in the network of Institutes for European Envir- mental Policy. Founded in 1995, Ecologic has a multi-disciplinary staff that includes lawyers, negotiators, social and natural scientists, economists, technologists, and pl- ners. With a focus on Europe and North America, Ecologic’s activities cover a growing geographical area and involve policy-makers, business leaders, technical experts and representatives of civil society organisations. Ecologic is officially recognised as being in the public interest. Donations to Ecologic are tax-deductible.