The reports collected in this book were prepared at the initiative and under the auspices of the Project on International Procedure of the School of Law of Columbia University within the framework of its co-operation with the Commission on International Rules of Judicial Procedure, a body created by Act of Congress of September 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1743. The Commission is charged with studying domestic and foreign procedures of international co-operation in litigation with a view to suggesting improvements. Since June 1960, the Project has assisted the Commission in carrying out this statutorily assigned task. Work on the reports here presented was begun in the fall of 1960. The Project invoked the assistance of an active practitioner in each of the foreign countries se1ected and submitted to hirn an extensive questionnaire summarizing American procedures and posing detailed quest ions about foreign practices. The elaborate answers to these questionnaires provided the information on which the American co authors relied in drafting the English versions of the reports. By having proceeded in this fashion, the Project hopes to have prepared reports that reflect the knowledge and experience of the foreign practitioners and at the same time are drafted in terms intelligible to common law lawyers. Furthermore, to ensure that the reports would take due account of official views, in almost all instances, final drafts of the reports were submitted for comments and suggestions to appropriate foreign public officials.