The modern Persian word for cosmology is "Keyhan-shenakht", which is also the title of a Persian book written more than 800 years ago. The same term can also be found in Old Persian. In spite of this old tradition, modern cosmology is a new~omer within the scientific disciplines in Iran. The cosmology community' is small and not yet well established. Given the spectacular recent advances in observational and theoretical cosmology, the large amount of new observational data which will become available in the near future, and the rapid expansion of the international cosmology community, it was realized that Iran should play a more active role in the exciting human endeavour which cosmology constitutes. This was the main motivation to establish a School on Cosmology in Iran. The plan is to hold a cosmology school every three years somewhere in Iran. The focus of this First School on Cosmology was chosen to be structure formation, a rapidly evolving cornerstone of modern cosmology. The topics of the school were selected in order to give both a broad overview of the current status of cosmological structure formation, and an in-depth dis cussion of the key issues theory of cosmological perturbations and analysis of cosmic microwave anisotropies. The lectures by Blanchard and Sarkar give an overview of homogeneous cosmological models and standard big bang cosmology. In his contribution, Padmanabhan presents a comprehen sive discussion of the growth of cosmological perturbations.