NCLB is the signal domestic policy initiative of the Bush administration and the most ambitious piece of federal education legislation in at least thirty-five years. Mandating a testing regime to force schools to continually improve student performance, it uses school choice and additional learning resources as sticks and carrots intended to improve low-performing schools and districts. The focus is on improving alternatives to children in low-performing schools. Here top experts evaluate the potential and the problems of NCLB in its initial stages of implementation. This first look provides valuable insights, offering lessons crucial to understanding this dramatic change in American education.