This volume presents a modern overview of the ecology, diversity and distribution of Mediterranean liverworts based on field data from all over the Mediterranean area. It is subdivided into nine sections, the first of which describes the sampling, data assessment and the statistical methods (multivariate analyses) used. Section two presents a summary of the geological history of the Mediterranean, its geograpic extent, climatic and edaphic conditions, and the characteristics of its phanerogamic vegetation. Liverwort biotopes and biocenoses are analysed in the third section, defining eight ecological species groups associated with specific biotopes. The co-variation of life history traits is analysed in section four. Six groups of species sharing similar patterns are defined on this basis, followed by a summary of the scant knowledge of genetic polymorphism and community variations in mediterranean liverworts (section five). Liverwort diversity in the Mediterranean is covered in the sixth section, and a study of the species distribution patterns, endemism, floristic contributions from adjacent zones, east-west differences, the characteristics of island floras and floristic similarities of other areas with a Mediterranean-type climate is presented (seventh section). Section eight thoroughly summarizes the results of this study. The ninth section documents ecological and distributional data, illustrated by maps for each of the sampled species.