We live in a world of constant and dynamic change. Change manifests in various guises ranging from small to big, local to global, individual to societal, or from subtle to sudden. It often comes out of the unexpected, yet people can also actively bring about change. Change can be for the better, but often reality means change for the worse. Preconditions for a contented and happy life, both material and intangible, are constantly challenged. Living conditions of individuals as well as communities are affected by inequality, exclusion, or poverty. Different kinds of challenge and change require different reactions.This volume results from a two-day conference in November 2011 in Salzburg, Austria, bringing together researchers and practitioners from different scientific disciplines in order to discuss approaches of poverty research, social inclusion strategies, and local knowledge applications with particular focus on transformation. The contributions shed light on appropriate theories, methodologies, and concrete applications of change concepts referring to poverty, place and identity at different temporal, social, and spatial scales. They address a readership ranging from social and political scientists, economists and statisticians, to philosophers, cultural scientists and geographers.