Rapid methodological progress is now taking place in the USSR in the solution of the problems of developing both society and economy. A considerable proportion of the total methodological problems of the USSR economy are dealt with in the present monograph. This work is intended for economists, managers and specialists in methodology, sociology and applied mathematics, and it may also be useful to researchers into operations as well as to politicians, philosophers and wide circles of readers interested in the present and future problems of the USSR economy. Readers will find here, I hope, answers to many questions. At the same time this work can be used as a manual for students and post-graduate students investigating countries with centrally planned economies. For his monograph the author has used the material originally developed for a special course of lectures called "Macromodels of Planning". Some sections of the book correspond to the subjects of courses on "Mathematical Programming" and "Operations Research" as well as to the subjects of special courses on "Methods of Vector Optimization", "Stochastic Programming", "Parametric Programming" and "Decomposition Methods of Programming", read by the author from 1971 to 1976 to the graduates and post graduates of the department of applied mathematics and management processes at Leningrad University.