This volume presents the proceedIngs of the Twelfth Annual LIn guistics Symposium of the UniversIty of WisconsIn-Milwaukee held March 11-12, 1983 on the campus of UWM. It includes all papers that were given at the conference with the exception of Genevieve Escure and Glenn Gilbert's joint paper "Syntactic marking/unmarking phenomena in the creole continuum of Belize" which was not submitted for publication by the authors. Many of the papers appear in this volume in a revised form that is somewhat different from the oral version. We would like to thank the various departments and other units at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee that sponsored the mark- ness symposium. These are: the Department of Linguistics, the English as a Second Language Intensive Program, the College of Let ters and Science, the Division of Urban Outreach, the Center for Latin America and the Spanish Speaking Outreach Institute. Finally, we wish to thank Lisa Carrara for doing a careful joh on the preparation of the index, and J. L. Russell, for his patience and perseverance in typing a difficult manuscript.