The subject of medical ethics is always current and offers an inviting theme, particularly for anyone who has spent his life in medical practice. But the subject of ethics is impossible to deal with unless one first asks its purposes. Therefore, this book is divided into two parts, the first comprehends theoretical considerations and the second, pragmatic and empirical data on, and discussions of, current problems. Part One will be of greater interest to moral philosophers, philosophers and historians of science, and social scientists. Part Two should have greater appeal to physicians, medical students and medical planners. Nevertheless, it is hoped that the latter will look into Part One for the justification of the conclusions the author could reach on the material presented in Part Two. Likewise, it will become obvious why it is believed the solutions of many, if not most, ethical dilemmas are not always discernible at a given moment in time. Also, those who are more concerned with the theoretical material of Part One might find its application to current real-life problems interesting. It should not be too much to hope that the entire book will appeal to many general readers. The bio-ethical problems presented are of frequent and growing personal concern, and are discussed almost daily in the news media.