Erica Cruikshank Dodd Education: B.A. Wellesley College, 1951 History of Art, concentration in Classical Art.Ph.D. Courtauld Institute of Art, University of London, 1958. Byzantine Art.Post Doctoral training: 1960-1963, Center for Middle East Studies, Harvard University, in Islamic Art.Employment History: 1997- present, Fellow and now Associate Fellow, Center for the Study of Religion and Society, University of Victoria.1997- present. Adjunct Professor, Department of History in Art University of Victoria, Victoria, BC 1989-1996 Unpaid assistant to the Fulbright Program in Pakistan1992-1993 Lecturer, Center for Intensive English Language Studies, Islamabad.1987-1989 Visiting Professor of Islamic and Byzantine Art Department of History in Art, University of Victoria,1986-1987 Senior Fellow, Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies Harvard Univ., Washington, D.C.Publications:Books: - Byzantine Silver Stamps, Dumbarton Oaks Studies, VII, l962- Byzantine Silver Treasures, Mongraphien der Abegg-Stiftung, Bern, l973 - (with Shereen Khairallah),The Image of the Word, American University of Beirut, l982.- The Frescoes of Mar Musa al-Habashi, AStudy of Medieval Painting in Syria, Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, Toronto, 2001Articles In addition to various book reviews, Congress reports, abstracts, etc. not mentioned:- with Andrew Alföldi) "A Sassanian Silver Phalera", Dumbarton Oaks Papers, XI, 1957, 237-245. - "Piatti di Largizione" and "Tesori", Enciclopedia dell'art antiqua e classica, 1962-l970.- "Byzantine Silver Stamps: Supplement I", Dumbarton Oaks Papers, XVIII, 1964, 239-248.- "Byzantine Silver Stamps: Supplement II", Dumbarton Oaks Papers, XXII, 1968, 143-149.- "On the Origins of Medieval Dinanderie: the Equestrian Statue in Islam", Art Bulletin, LI, 1969, 220-232. - "The Image of the Word", Berytus, XVIII, 1969, 35-6l.- "On a Fatimid Rabbit", Kunst des Orients, VIII, 1973, 60-76, 160.- Sections on Abbasid art for Die Kunst des Islam, Porpylaen Verlag, ed. J. Sourdel Thomine and B. Spuler, with Klaus Brisch, etc. l974.- "Notes on the Wall Paintings of Mart Schmuni", Archéologie au Levant, Receuil R. Saidah, CMO, l2, Arch. 9, Lyon, 1982, 451-462.- "Notes on the Monastery of Mar Musa al-Habashi, Near Nebek, Syria", British Archaeological Reports, BAR International Series, 152, 1982, 167-189.- "A Sassanian Bowl in the Collection of Elie Borowski", Okeanos, A Tribute to Ihor Sevcenko, Harvard Ukranian Studies, VII, 1983, 145-157.- "The Mosaic of the Fruit and the Knife in Khirbet al-Mafjar, Studies in the History and Archaeology of Palestine, I, Aleppo, 1984, pp. 320-327.- "Three Byzantine Silver Crosses," Dumbarton Oaks Papers, XLI (1987), 165-179.- "Aquamanile (Islam)", " Amioun", Encyclopedia del 'arte medieval, Vol. 1, 1991 - "The Monastery of Mar Musa al-Habashi, near Nebek, Syria", Arte medievale, 2nd Ser., VI (1992), pp. 61-144.- "The Question of Workshop: Evidence of the Stamps on the Sion Treasure" and " The Location of Silver Stamping: Evidence from Newly Discovered Stamps," Ecclesiastical Silver Plate in Sixth-Century Byzantium, eds., Susan A. Boyd and Marlia Mundell Mango, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C., 1993, pp. 57-63, 217-223.- "Bahdeidat", "Baalbek", "Lebanon/Syria," Encyclopedia del 'arte medieval, forthcoming. -"Inscriptions in the Mosque of Wazir Khan, Lahore," International Conference of Islamic Architecture, Lahore, March, 1993.- "More Inscriptions in the Mosque of the Wazir Khan, Lahore," The Word as Image in Islamic Art, Conference at Hofstra University, April 1996. - "Offering," "Light," and "Word-Logos", Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography, Helen Roberts (ed.), Fitzroy Dearborn.- "Christian Arab Painting under the Mamluks," ARAM, 9-10 (1997-1998), pp. 257-288.- "Christian Arab Sources for the Ceiling of the Palatine Chapel, Palermo," Studi in ornore di Angiola Maria Romanini, Enciclopedia dell'Art Medievale, Edizioni sintesi Informazione, Rome, 2000, pp. 823-831.- "The Three Patriarchs of Mar Musa al-Habashi: Syrian Painting and its Relationship with the West," Al-Masaq, Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean, 12 (2000), pp. 99-139.- "Mar Tadros, Bahdeidat. Paintings in a Lebanese Church from the Thirteenth Century, Journal of the Canadian Society for Syriac Studies, 1 (2001), pp. 61-84.- "Christian Arab sources for the Madonna Allatante in Italy," Memorial volume for Prof. Maria Angelo Romanini, Enciclopedia Italiana.
Christians in Lebanon have been painting their churches ever since the time of Christ but their work is largely unknown. Presently, the larger study of Byzantine painting has barely touched upon medieval Lebanon and very little has been published on a closely connected group of paintings in medieval Syria. A few paintings were noticed by French scholars in the nineteenth century and during the early French mandate in Syria. After the Second World War, Jules Leroy, Joseph Nasrallah and Pierre Tallon enlarged this knowledge and these authors also referred to Arabic sources, both Christian and Moslem, that spoke of medieval Christian painting long vanished, for example in the churches of Baghdad and the Tur Abdin. A few monuments have been noted by modern scholars, and Yaroslav Folda studied the frescoes of Crak des Chevaliers in depth. Yet this body of artistic works at the eastern end of the Mediterranean still illustrate a significant gap in our understanding of medieval culture. Most, but not all of the paintings that have survived to the present day in Lebanon and also in Syria belong to the twelfth and thirteenth centuries during the Crusades, a period when the greatest historical developments were taking place. As long as this region remained unexamined, an understanding of the cultural history of the Mediterranean basin was incomplete.I have attempted to bridge this gap by publishing two studies: The first one The Frescoes of Mar Musa al-Habashi, described the paintings of Syria, in particular the frescoes of the Monastery of St. Moses the Ethiopian, near Nebek. The reason for studying Syrian painting first was because the monument of Mar Musa al-Habashi presents the most extensive program of church decoration in the entire Middle East, documented and almost intact. This made a solid point of departure for the study of Lebanese paintings, which are much more fragmentary and diverse. This, the second study, is a continuation of the first one. Together they contribute to our understanding of cultural interchange in the medieval Mediterranean world.This study of Medieval Painting in the Lebanon approaches Lebanese paintings from two aspects. In the first place, I describe twenty-six monuments still visible today and, in a few cases, what was there before it disappeared during the course of our work. A close description of the paintings and the painted inscriptions that explain them is given in the catalogue, including a black-and-white illustration of every painting. The main body of the text then discusses the paintings as a group, including chapters on history, architecture, iconography and style.These chapters explore and attempt to explain relationships between Lebanese painting and other paintings in contemporary, Christian communities. Ideas moved with great rapidity across the Mediterranean during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and the Lebanese frescoes reflect the vigorous and colourful society of Outremer. Among all historical circumstances since the fall of the Roman Empire, the Crusades had the most far-reaching impact on European history and culture. Arab history was not unaffected by the Crusades but the greater impulse was from the East to the West. For the Arabs, the Crusades were only an interlude of two centuries, whereas the Crusades changed the face of Europe. There were momentous impulses that reached across the seas at this time, not the least of them being the burgeoning commerce of the silk route and the approach of the Mongols. Lebanese painting reflects changes of this kind during this period. They not only illumine our understanding of medieval history in the Mediterranean basin, but also our understanding of the East and the West we experience today.