Since the early decades of the last century, some eminent European scientists have contributed to the creation of a new perspective of our planet Earth. Some outstanding scientific articles were published in the journal Geologische Rundschau (now International Journal of Earth Sciences), mostly in German. These milestones of geoscientific research are available in English for the first time and are presented in this volume. Famous authors include for example Alfred Wegener, a pioneer of modern geology, Gustav Steinmann, Alexander Du Toit, Wolfgang Schott, Hans Cloos and Carl W. Correns. The reader will find a wealth of information about how new insights in specific fields have influenced the development of geoscientific research.