In 1970, Manfred Eigen initiated the study of the origin of self-reproducing systems of macromolecules and their evolution. Large-scale nucleotide sequencing (with computer methods) was introduced from 1977. The authors of this book, the first edition of which appeared (in Russian) in 1985, have been engaged in the research of the evolution of molecular genetic regulatory systems ever since those pioneering years. The book considers many fundamental problems of molecular biology, evolution, molecular genetic organization, the structure and function of macromolecules, always with the underlying motive of developing a unified theory. It describes many original, theoretical results as well as computational methods.