Collaborative networks in action Collaborative Networks (CN) is a fast developing area, as shown by the already large number of diverse real-world implemented cases and the dynamism of its related involved research community. Benefiting from contributions of multiple areas, namely computer science, computer engineering, communications and networking, management, economy, social sciences, law and ethics, etc. , the area of Collaborative Networks is being consolidated as a new scientific discipline of its own. . On one hand significant steps towards a stronger theoretical foundation for this new discipline are being taken. On the other hand, a growing number of application cases are being developed and applied in industry and services. A good collection of active and emerging VO Breeding Environments and Professional Virtual Communities can be found in various regions of the world. This phenomenon is particularly evident in Europe where considerable investments in collaborative networks have been made in many of its regions. Based on the experiences and lessons learned in many research projects and pilot cases developed during the last decade, a new emphasis is now being put on the development of holistic frameworks, combining business models, conceptual models, governance principles and methods, as well as supporting infrastructures and services. In fact, reaching the phase in which the computer and networking technologies provide a good starting basis for the establishment of collaborative platforms, the emphasis is now turning to the understanding of the collaboration promotion mechanisms and CN governance principles.