Like the 120 volt standard for electricity, the appearance of standards in network management heralds new opportunities for creativity and achievement. As one example, within the framework of these evolving standards, consider a system of local area networks connecting computing equipment from different vendors. A bridge 1qc. k:8 up because of a transient caused by a repeater failure. The result is a massive disconnecHon of virtual circuits. What is the role of the manager and the network management system in solving the problem? How does the vendor implement the solution? How does the user use it? What measurements should be made? How should they be displayed? How much of the diagnosis and correction should be automated? How does the solution change with different hardware and software? In the IEEE Communications Magazine, I recently reported a timely illustration in the area of problems in fault management. At the workshop hotel, "I was waiting for a room assignment at the reception desk, when my attendant left the counter for a moment. Upon returning, he took one look at his screen and whined an accusatory question at everyone in sight, 'Who logged out my terminal?' Who indeed! It wasn't any of us. It was the system.