Aggression is a highly conserved behavioral adaptation that evolved to help org- isms compete for limited resources and thereby ensure their survival. However, in modern societies where resources such as food, shelter, etc. are not limiting, aggr- sion has become a major cultural problem worldwide presumably because of its deep seeded roots in the neuronal circuits and neurochemical pathways of the human brain. In Neurobiology of Aggression: Understanding and Preventing Violence, leading experts in the fields of the neurobiology, neurochemistry, genetics, and behavioral and cultural aspects of aggression and violence provide a comprehensive collection of review articles on one of the most important cross-disciplinary issues of our time. Rather than summarize the topics covered by each author in each chapter, I present a schematic diagram to guide the reader in thinking about different aspects of aggr- sive and violent behavior from its neurobiological roots to environmental factors that can either promote or prevent aggression to visions of some of the most horrific acts of violence of our times, and then towards the development of strategies to reduce aggressive behavior and prevent violence. It is hoped that Neurobiology of Aggression: Understanding and Preventing V- lence will foster further research aimed at understanding the environmental genetic and neurochemical roots of aggression and how such information can be used to move forward towards the goal of eliminating violence.