One of the major ecological challenges on Lake Victoria resources is the existence of "hot spots", caused by human waste, urban runoff, and industrial effluents. The lake is tending towards eutrophication which is attributed to the increasing human population in its watershed. The rate of population growth, estimated at seven per cent within 100 kilometres around the Lake Victoria catchment area, had outpaced the continental average, reflecting growing dependence and pressure on the lake's resources. The population growth around the continent's largest lake is significantly higher than the rest of Africa. If Lake Victoria is not managed properly, it wiIlloss sustainability for the future. The lake is experiencing increasing anthropogenic loads of pollutants from expanding urban, agricultural and industrial development. So far, very little or no work has been done to determine the levels or impact of non-conventional trace organic pollutants in the Lake Victoria. The negative health impacts caused by some of the trace organic pollutants are well documented in other studies. It is in this view that the motivation of doing this study arose. The choice of pollutant for this study was perfluorinated compounds because it is an emerging non-conventional pollutant of concern worldwide.
Areport of the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid in environmental matrices of Lake Victoria is presented, and management implication of perfluorinated compounds and similar potential organic pollutants examined. Report on degradability of new emerging substitutes for perfluorinated alkyl surfactants and an alternative method for analysis of perfluorocarboxylic acids are presented.