This book contains papers based on talks given at the International Conference Dynamical Systems: 100 years after Poincaré held at the University of Oviedo, Gijón in Spain, September 2012. It provides an overview of the state of the art in the study of dynamical systems. This book covers a broad range of topics, focusing on discrete and continuous dynamical systems, bifurcation theory, celestial mechanics, delay difference and differential equations, Hamiltonian systems and also the classic challenges in planar vector fields. It also details recent advances and new trends in the field, including applications to a wide range of disciplines such as biology, chemistry, physics and economics. The memory of Henri Poincaré, who laid the foundations of the subject, inspired this exploration of dynamical systems. In honor of this remarkable mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer and philosopher, the authors have made a special effort to place the reader at the frontiers of current knowledge in the discipline.