This book is a collection of scientific papers presented at the XVIII International Congress of Aviation and Space Medicine held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, from 15-18 September 1969. It is dedicated to General E. de Vries and Dr. K. Vaan drager, President and Vice-President of the Congress, who wished that this unsur passed exchange of scientific information by distinguished authorities of the inter national aerospace medical community be made readily available to all as a valuable source of information. I am deeply grateful to the Congress Committee for honoring me with this editorship, to the authors for submitting generally excellent manuscripts and to the publisher for compiling a book of such high quality. This book contains both Main Theme papers, given by invited lecturers, and selected Free Communications at the Congress. Main Themes were 'physiology of atmospheric pressure' (papers by Ernsting, Meijne, Sluijter, Behnke), 'vestibular problems in aviation medicine' (papers by Melvill Jones, Benson, Oosterveld, Groen, Guedry and Benson, Brandt, Henriksson and Nilsson), 'aviation and cardiology' (papers by Blackburn, Wood) and 'space medicine' (paper by Berry). The Free Communications herein focus on many areas of continuing and timely interest to clinicians and investigators in aerospace medicine. Selection and health maintenance of pilots, medical problems in airline passengers, use of the centrifuge as a therapeutic device, and circadian rhythm effects on man's psychophysiological state receive particular attention.