A historical survey on Red Sea coral research covers the period from the first coral illustration of T.Shaw (1738) to H.Fricke's submersile, which he used in 1981 to drive down to a depth of 200 m and to collect corals. The systematic part of the present report deals with altogether 2074 corals that were ascribes to 194 species from 70 genera. Of these, 161 species from 51 genera with 1976 specimens are reef corals. The remainder, 33 species from 19 genera with 98 specimens are ahermatypic corals. All 194 species are described, their affinities discussed, and information is given about their geographical distribution. 176 species are figured. Four species are described as new to science, and 22 species were found for the first time in the Red Sea.