Schizophrenia, described by Karl Jaspers "the enigma of humani ty itself;' has lost little of its enigmatic quality despite intensive research efforts alI over the world. Indeed, the results of in numerable neurobiological, psychological, and psychoanalytic studies have furthered confusion rather than an understanding of the issues. The split, rooted in the tradition of the last century, be tween those studying the "psyche" and those more interested in "organic" explanations continues to grow wider. National and in ternational classification schemes, ever being revised and ever in need of further revision, are but a last helpless attempt to stern the tide of confusion. In view of the many and complex factors involved in the etiology of schizophrenia, it is very tempting to seek relief in one-dimen sional explanatory models. But too often, having developed such a model, one becomes inclined to shut one eye or the other (or both?) and entrench oneself in what appears to be afirm, unshak able position. It therefore seemed time to step aside and take stock of the present focuses of research and scientific viewpoints, to try and see whether it might be possible to build bridges between the various lines of research into and theories about the etiology and treatment of schizophrenia.