Bone circulation is important to our understanding of many major orthopedic conditions such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, repair, and tumors. Yet, circulatory physiology, basic to all healthy organs and most diseases, has been difficult to study in the skeleton. The biological regulation of blood flow is complex and the tissues have been relatively inaccessible to measurement. In recent years, however, advances have been made in understanding circulatory physiology and fluid flow in bone, functional measurement of blood flow, and the roles of circulation in bone turnover and repair. These advances have enhanced our insights into bone homeostasis and the interrelationships of circulation and skeletal biology, including repair and disease.This seminal volume presents updated information on circulatory physiology of bone and fluid flow through the bone matrix. It then describes new techniques in quantifying and imaging bone circulation. A clinical section covering circulatory elements of skeletal diseases provides valuable insight into pathophysiology that may serve as diagnostic biomarkers or therapeutic targets.